Learn About First Aid in General


Remember also that you learn best by doing. In an emergency there is no time to read instructions. If you have saved some of the most basic procedures, you can react quickly and effectively.

Where do you start when giving first aid?

It is important to identify those situations that pose an immediate threat to life.

Vital signs that we recognize are: awareness, breathing and pulse. It is interesting to know the recognition techniques and vital signs remain calm enough while performing these checks.

The scanning order is based on the priority criteria:

  • Ensuring that air enters the lungs correctly.
  • Check if you keep the pulse.
  • Detect and monitor any major bleeding.

The technique of mouth

The buzz technique is applied in adults and older children:

  • Open the airway using head tilt-chin, described above.
  • Cover the nose with the index finger and thumb of the hand placed on the forehead.
  • Take a deep breath and applying lips around the casualty, take strong air and slowly, checking with the view that the person’s chest rises, a sign that air has entered the lungs.
  • Repeat this maneuver twice and then follow by blowing air at a rate of 12-15 breaths per minute until help arrives or the person starts breathing again.

Recognition of vital signs

To determine whether a sick or injured person is aware there have a few simple questions like what happens?, Do you hear?, I can help??, Or touch on the shoulder to see if he responds.

If the answer is that it maintains the correct level of consciousness and vital signs logic. If no response, despite various stimuli, such as pinching to observe their reactions, you are unconscious. We must immediately notify an ambulance, if you have not already done so, and examine the breathing and pulse.

To check if a person breathes, the person providing first aid must use the view (see if the chest rises and falls), hearing (place near the mouth to hear the breath) and touch (bring her cheek to patient’s mouth and nose to feel the warmth of breath).

If the patient breathes, it is not necessary to further explore the vital signs. If not breathing, immediately begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers.

When a person stops breathing, the only effective maneuver is currently trying to draw air into his lungs. To get there you take a series of maneuvers:

Then apply the techniques of artificial respiration, as the case may be:

  • Lay the person flat on the floor face up.
  • Examine the mouth to remove any foreign bodies (dentures, gum or other objects that may impede the flow of air).
  • Open the airway. This call is made head tilt-chin: Place the index and middle fingers of one hand under her chin and pressed his thumb on his chin, pushing it up, while the other hand is placed on the forehead pushing down. This move will get the base of the tongue not to obstruct the passage of air through the hyperextension of the neck. It is clear that if strong suspicion that there may be an injury to the cervical spine should not move your head then, and is forced to try to make artificial respiration absolutely still trying to keep the neck of the victim.
  • It is important to remember that in the case of an injured motorist would never attempt to remove the helmet, as if it had a neck injury, unfortunately relatively common temporariness-only things

Exercising the heart

We may check the status or function of the heart by examining the arterial pulse. The pulse is checked in the neck, on either side of the Adam’s apple, where they spend the arteries that carry blood to the head (carotid arteries). You have to use the index and middle fingers of the hand (never the thumb, in which it shows the pulse itself).

If you do not pulse, begin external cardiac massage, in which you can replace artificially of cardiac function.

The heart is located in the center of the chest between the sternum and spine. Therefore, if we apply force to the sternum, the heart will contract against the spine and eject blood containing inside. When you stop pressing on the sternum the heart fill with blood again passively and so on.

The technique consists of:

  • Stand on your knees to one side of the patient, to shoulder height.
  • With the index and middle fingers locate the bottom of the ribs at their junction with the sternum.
  • Following these two fingers placed the heel of your other hand on the lower third of the sternum.
  • Place the heel of your other hand on top, fingers intertwined to prevent these touch the chest.
  • Keep your elbows straight and always support the weight of your body on your hands to make it easier to squeeze by the help of gravity.
  • Just squeeze and quickly get the sternum to a vertical displacement of about 3.5 to 5 cm. Then the pressure relax again and repeat.
  • It must achieve a rate of 60 to 80 compressions per minute for adults. It is so important to compress the heart is empty, and so you can unzip to refill with blood.
  • In case of cardiac arrest, ie a situation in which the spontaneous breathing and circulation do not exist (the person is unresponsive, not breathing and has no pulse), should initiate basic life support maneuvers you combine respiratory resuscitation techniques and external cardiac massage until help arrives or the patient recovery occurs.

What if a baby (0-1 year) is unconscious, not breathing and has no pulse?

The approach to a cardiac arrest in an infant does not differ much from the action to be performed in an adult.

For the opening of the airways, often enough to make a small extension of the neck. It is important a good cleaning of the mouth. To breathe air into the baby will use the technical word of mouth-nose placing the rescuer’s mouth so completely covering the mouth and nose of the child.

If you do not find a pulse, begin cardiac massage: locate the compression point amidst the breastbone just two fingers below the line joining the nipples. Compression will do with the index and middle fingers sinking sternum 1.5 to 3 cm and seeking to establish a rate of about 120 compressions per minute.

The ratio of resuscitation is cycled air insufflation five cardiac massage.

What to do if someone is bleeding?

The fundamental objective of the person providing first aid is to stop the bleeding of the victim as quickly as possible.

The severity of bleeding is closely related to the volume of blood lost from blood vessels, a greater volume of blood loss, increased risk for sustaining life. Thus, bleeding can range from mild to severe.

Depending on the type of vessel injury, bleeding is arterial, venous or capillary, and as the place where blood is lost, the hemorrhages are external, internal or externalised, ie occur inside the body but flow abroad through a natural body opening like the ears, nose, mouth, anus or genitals.

First of all bleeding should:

Bleeding from small wounds or bleeding usually stops in a few minutes to make a pressure on the bleeding point with a cloth or handkerchief, which should be as clean as possible.

The wounds or cuts deeper veins affecting produce a dark blood oozing slowly and steadily. Bleeding can usually stop pressing it gently into the wound with a clean cloth or tissue and then applying a clean bandage. It will often be necessary to sew or stitch these wounds so will need to see a doctor after first aid.

Bleeding from an artery can be a serious and even cause death within minutes if bleeding is not controlled, so that a proper emergency first aid essential. This type of bleeding does throb and spurt blood each time it beats the pulse. The blood is usually bright red and intermittent spurts.

To stop bleeding from an artery, must exert strong pressure on the bleeding point and hold it until the patient receives appropriate medical treatment. Press with a clean cloth or use a hand if there is nothing else available. Put a bandage on the wound if possible. If blood soaks through the bandage press harder until the bleeding stops. Do not remove the bandages soaked because the creep clot formation, but if necessary, place another on top.

If the direct compression on the wound to stop the bleeding is achieved, you can try to compress the artery that carries blood to the wound, especially bleeding limbs.

Only in very special cases (when other methods are not effective, the bleeding continues and may mean the loss of life) can be applied tourniquet technique. Taking the decision to loosen a tourniquet is recommended every few minutes and should aim where possible, even with their own blood, the time at which it was put.

It should knock the person, preferably with the head lower than the body. This will ensure that enough oxygen reaches the brain. If possible, place the wound area higher than the rest of the body so that the pressure and thus reduce bleeding.

Do not attempt to clean the wound. Arterial bleeding should always be treated by a doctor.

  • Monitor vital signs.
  • Control and stop the bleeding using: Direct compression hand or a finger on the bleeding focus. The compression of the artery that provides blood to the bleeding wound.

What if someone has a bleeding nose?

Nosebleed or epistaxis occurs when you break one of the small blood vessels of the mucous membrane of the nose, for various reasons.

To stop bleeding pressure must be performed directly on the bleeding nostril and against the nasal septum during 5 to 10 minutes. The head is tilted forward to prevent swallowing or aspiration of blood or clots. The patient must breathe through the mouth.

If bleeding continues, you need to go to an emergency department. If a person has repeated nosebleeds and intense, you should see your doctor to check the problem.

What to do if someone is choking?

The airway obstruction prevents air and therefore oxygen containing reaches the lungs. Usually of abrupt onset and in most cases caused by the entry of a foreign body in the airways.

This problem is more common in young children because they are usually placed in the mouth all kinds of objects. In adults, often the obstruction is caused by food but may be produced by other objects such as dentures, etc.

Obstruction of the airway may be incomplete or complete. In the case of incomplete obstruction usually displayed agitated person with cough important. Cough usually causes the expulsion of the foreign body being all in a fright. We should not give back blows as the individual could cause the foreign body penetrated deeper and put in place a complete obstruction.

By contrast, when the airway is completely obstructed by a foreign body, the air in the lungs can not leave so the person can not cough or speak or breathe. The person is agitated and distressed, many gestures and, characteristically, he puts his hands to his throat.

The best way to approach this problem is to use the Heimlich maneuver, which is performed as follows: Stand behind the victim, put his arms around her waist and bend the body forward person.

If you yourself who is choking, place a closed fist over his navel and the other hand on top. Push ahead with the first hand to the stomach. Repeat until the object stuck in the throat is expelled through the mouth.

  • Press fist and put it on its inner edge just four fingers above the navel of the subject.
  • C√≥jase your fist with your other hand
  • Perform heavy pressure inward and upward.
  • Release pressure without losing the hand position and repeat the maneuver until the object stuck in the throat is expelled through the mouth.

Shock and dismay. What are they?

A shock and fainting occur as a result of the lack or decreased blood supply to the tissues to which not enough oxygen. When the brain does not receive an adequate supply of oxygen is a feeling of weakness, disorientation and dizziness.

When this happens, the person:

  • The shock may occur after an accident that has lost blood excessive.
  • After a severe infection with fluid loss.
  • After a serve burn .
  • Other processes that occur after loss of blood or fluid.
  • When blood flow is too slow, low blood pressure and very little oxygen circulating through the body.

What if someone has a shock or faint?

First and whenever possible, we must address the underlying cause:

  • Monitor vital signs, treat injuries if possible and reassure the people.
  • The person should lie on your back, preferably with feet up, to ensure that enough blood reaches the brain.
  • Make sure the person is warm, comfortable and covered by a blanket, if possible.
  • Do not give anything to drink since it runs the risk of choking.
  • If the person vomits or bleeds from the mouth, should stand side to prevent choking.
  • Call an ambulance and the victim evacuate urgently. A person with a shock should always be seen by a doctor.

Dr. Henrik Omark Petersen , Thoracic Surgery Specialist, Dr. Stuart Crisp , pediatric specialist